MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)  When an electron in an atom goes from a higher energy state to a lower energy state, the atom

A) emits a photon of a specific frequency.

B) absorbs a photon of a specific frequency.

C) absorbs several photons of a specific frequency.

D) can emit a photon of any frequency.

E) can absorb a photon of any frequency.

 

2)  Which of the following does not have a major effect in shaping planetary surfaces?

A) impact cratering

B) volcanism

C) tectonics

D) erosion

E) magnetism

 

3)  What mechanism is most responsible for generating the internal heat of Io that drives the volcanic activity?

A) accretion

B) radioactive decay

C) differentiation

D) tidal heating

E) bombardment

 

4)  What is the purpose of adaptive optics?

A) to improve the angular resolution of telescopes in space

B) to eliminate the distorting effects of atmospheric turbulence for telescopes on the ground

C) to increase the collecting area of telescopes on the ground

D) to increase the magnification of telescopes on the ground

E) to allow several small telescopes to work together like a single larger telescope

 

5)  Which of the following is not characteristic of the jovian planets?

A) larger size and radius than terrestrial planets

B) farther from the Sun than terrestrial planets

C) higher density than terrestrial planets

D) no solid surface

E) spaced farther apart than terrestrial planets

 

6)  Where are most of the known asteroids found?

A) between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter

B) in the Kuiper belt

C) in the Oort cloud

D) between the orbits of the jovian planets

E) between the orbits of the terrestrial planets

 

7)  What is the Io torus?

A) the atmosphere of Io that consists of gases expelled by the volcanically active moon

B) a donut-shaped belt around Jupiter that consists of ionized gases, expelled by the volcanically active moon Io, captured by Jupiter's magnetic field

C) a large, donut-shaped volcano on the surface of Io

D) a donut-shaped belt around Jupiter that consists of charged particles captured from the solar wind by Jupiter's magnetic field

E) a planned NASA mission to Io

 

8)  The age of our solar system is approximately

A) 10,000 years.

B) 3.8 million years.

C) 4.6 million years.

D) 4.6 billion years.

E) 10-20 billion years.

 

9)  Which of the following is not characteristic of the terrestrial planets?

A) smaller size and radius than jovian planets

B) more moons than jovian planets

C) higher density than jovian planets

D) solid surface

E) more closely spaced together than jovian planets

 

10)  Heat escapes from the planet's surface into space by thermal radiation. Planets radiate almost entirely in the wavelength range of the

A) infrared.

B) radio.

C) visible.

D) ultraviolet.

E) none of the above

 

11)  Spacecraft have landed on all the terrestrial worlds except

A) Mercury. B)  Venus. C)  Moon. D)  Mars.

 

12)  How did the lunar maria form?

A) Large impacts fractured the Moon's lithosphere, allowing lava to fill the impact basins.

B) The early bombardment created heat that melted the lunar surface in the regions of the maria.

C) Volatiles escaping from the Moon's interior heated and eroded the surface in the regions of the maria.

D) The giant impact that created the Moon left smooth areas that we call the maria.

E) The maria are the result of gradual erosion by micrometeorites striking the Moon.

 

13)  The terrestrial planet cores contain mostly metal because

A) the entire planets are made mostly of metal.

B) metals condensed first in the solar nebula and the rocks then accreted around them.

C) metals sank to the center during a time when the interiors were molten throughout.

D) radioactivity created metals in the core from the decay of uranium.

E) convection carried the metals to the core.

 

14)  Planetary rings are

A) nearer to their planet than any of the planet's large moons.

B) orbiting in the equatorial plane of their planet.

C) composed of a large number of individual particles that orbit their planet in accord with Kepler's third law.

D) known to exist for all of the jovian planets.

E) all of the above.

 

15)  Which of the following worlds has the most substantial atmosphere?

A) Mercury B)  Venus C)  the Moon D)  Mars E)  Earth

 

16)  Which of the following describes volcanism?

A) the excavation of bowl-shaped depressions by asteroids or comets striking a planet's surface

B) the eruption of molten rock from a planet's interior to its surface

C) the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses

D) the wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water, ice, and other phenomena of planetary weather

 

17)  Which of the following is not an advantage of the Hubble Space Telescope over ground-based telescopes?

A) It is closer to the stars.

B) Stars do not twinkle when observed from space.

C) It can observe infrared and ultraviolet light, as well as visible light.

D) It never has to close because of bad weather.

E) Observers on the ground can use it at any time of day (i.e., not only during their night).

 

18)  The lithosphere of a planet is the layer that consists of

A) material above the crust.

B) material between the crust and the mantle.

C) the rigid rocky material of the crust and uppermost portion of the mantle.

D) the softer rocky material of the mantle.

E) the lava that comes out of volcanoes.

 

19)  When white light passes through a cool cloud of gas, we see

A) visible light.

B) infrared light.

C) thermal radiation.

D) an absorption line spectrum.

E) an emission line spectrum.

 

20)  The atmospheric pressure on the surface of a planet depends primarily on

A) the surface temperature.

B) the weight of the atmosphere above the surface.

C) the surface gravity of the planet.

D) the fraction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

E) the amount of sunlight absorbed in the atmosphere.

 

21)  What do astronomers mean by light pollution?

A) Light pollution refers to pollution caused by light industry as opposed to heavy industry.

B) Light pollution refers to harmful gases emitted by common street lights.

C) Light pollution refers to light used for human activities that brightens the sky and hinders astronomical observations.

D) Light pollution refers to the lights that must be used inside major observatories and that make it difficult for astronomers' eyes to adapt to darkness.

E) Light pollution is another name for sunlight, which makes it impossible to see stars in the daytime.

 

22)  Olympus Mons is a

A) shield volcano on Mars.

B) stratovolcano on Mercury.

C) large lava plain on the Moon.

D) shield volcano on Venus.

E) stratovolcano on the Moon.

 

23)  Everything looks red through a red filter because

A) the filter emits red light and absorbs other colors.

B) the filter absorbs red light and emits other colors.

C) the filter transmits red light and absorbs other colors.

D) the filter reflects red light and transmits other colors.

 

24)  According to the nebular theory, what are asteroids and comets?

A) They are the shattered remains of collisions between planets.

B) They are the shattered remains of collisions between moons.

C) They are leftover planetesimals that never accreted into planets.

D) They are chunks of rock or ice that condensed long after the planets and moons had formed.

E) They are chunks of rock or ice that were expelled from planets by volcanoes.

 

25)  How does the greenhouse effect work?

A) Greenhouse gases transmit visible light, allowing it to heat the surface, but then absorb infrared light from the Earth, trapping the heat near the surface.

B) The higher pressure of the thick atmosphere at lower altitudes traps heat in more effectively.

C) Ozone transmits visible light, allowing it to heat the surface, but then absorbs most of the infrared heat, trapping the heat near the surface.

D) Greenhouse gases absorb X rays and ultraviolet light from the Sun, which then heat the atmosphere and the surface.

E) Greenhouse gases absorb infrared light from the Sun, which then heats the atmosphere and the surface.

 

26)  Under what circumstances can differentiation occur in a planet?

A) The planet must have a rocky surface.

B) The planet must be made of both metal and rock.

C) The planet must have an atmosphere.

D) The planet must be geologically active, that is, have volcanoes, planetquakes, and erosion from weather.

E) The planet must have a molten interior.

 

27)  The wavelength of a wave is

A) how strong the wave is.

B) the distance between a peak of the wave and the next trough.

C) the distance between two adjacent peaks of the wave.

D) the distance between where the wave is emitted and where it is absorbed.

E) equal to the speed of the wave times the wave's frequency.

 

28)  We can rule out the idea that the Earth and Moon formed simultaneously in the solar nebula because

A) they have different rotation rates.

B) they have different densities.

C) they have different sizes.

D) they have different surfaces.

E) the Moon is made of metal and the Earth is made of rock.

 

29)  Which of the following describes tectonics?

A) the excavation of bowl-shaped depressions by asteroids or comets striking a planet's surface

B) the eruption of molten rock from a planet's interior to its surface

C) the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses

D) the wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water, ice, and other phenomena of planetary weather

 

30)  According to our theory of solar system formation, why do all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction and in nearly the same plane?

A) The original solar nebula happened to be disk-shaped by chance.

B) Any planets that once orbited in the opposite direction or a different plane were ejected from the solar system.

C) The laws of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum ensure that any rotating, collapsing cloud will end up as a spinning disk.

D) The Sun formed first, and as it grew in size it spread into a disk, rather like the way a ball of dough can be flattened into a pizza by spinning it.

E) Luck explains it, as we would expect that most other solar systems would not have all their planets orbiting in such a pattern.

 

31)  Which of the following wavelength regions cannot be studied with telescopes on the ground?

A) radio waves

B) ultraviolet

C) X rays

D) both B and C

E) both A and C

 

32)  Valles Marineris is a(n)

A) large valley on the Moon.

B) extensive plain on Mars.

C) huge series of cliffs on Mercury.

D) large canyon on Mars.

E) large canyon on Venus.

 

33)  An icy leftover planetesimal orbiting the Sun is

A) a comet.

B) a meteor.

C) an asteroid.

D) a meteorite.

E) possibly any of the above.

 

34)  Which of the following worlds have the thinnest lithospheres?

A) Earth and the Moon

B) Venus and the Moon

C) Mercury and Venus

D) Earth and Mars

E) Earth and Venus

 

35)  How have we been able to construct detailed maps of surface features on Venus?

A) by studying Venus from Earth with powerful telescopes

B) by studying Venus with powerful telescopes on spacecraft that were sent to orbit Venus

C) by making computer models of geological processes on Venus

D) by using radar from spacecraft that were sent to orbit Venus

E) by landing spacecraft on the surface for close-up study

 

36)  Which of the terrestrial worlds has the strongest magnetic field?

A) Mars B)  Earth C)  the Moon D)  Venus E)  Mercury

 

37)  The belts and zones of Jupiter are

A) alternating bands of rising and falling air at different latitudes.

B) cyclonic and anticyclonic storms.

C) names for different cloud layers on Jupiter.

D) alternating regions of charged particles in Jupiter's magnetic field.

 

38)  If one object has a large redshift and another object has a small redshift, what can we conclude about these two objects?

A) The one with the large redshift is moving toward us faster than the one with the small redshift.

B) The one with the large redshift is moving away from us, and the one with the small redshift is moving toward us.

C) The one with the large redshift is moving away from us faster than the one with the small redshift.

D) The one with the large redshift is hotter and therefore is putting out more radiation.

 

39)  The spectra of most galaxies show redshifts. This means that their spectral lines

A) always are in the red part of the visible spectrum.

B) have wavelengths that are longer than normal.

C) have wavelengths that are shorter than normal.

D) have a higher intensity in the red part of the spectrum.

E) have normal wavelengths, but absorption of light makes them appear red.

 

40)  How do asteroids differ from comets?

A) Asteroids are rocky bodies and are denser than the comets, which are made of icy material.

B) Asteroids are rocky bodies and are less dense than the comets, which are made of icy material.

C) Asteroids are made of icy material and are denser than the comets, which are more rocky.

D) Asteroids are made of icy material and are less dense than the comets, which are rockier.

E) Asteroids and comets are both made of rocky and icy material, but asteroids are smaller in size than comets.

 

41)  Most of the planets discovered around other stars

A) are more massive than Earth and orbit very far from the star.

B) are more massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star.

C) are less massive than Earth and orbit very far from the star.

D) are less massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star.

E) are found around neutron stars.

 

42)  The core, mantle, and crust of a planet are defined by differences in their

A) geological activity. B)  temperature.

C) strength. D)  composition.

 

43)  From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

A) infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays, radio

B) radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays

C) visible light, infrared, X rays, ultraviolet, gamma rays, radio

D) gamma rays, X rays, visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radio

E) radio, X rays, visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma rays

 

44)  Why do astronomers believe Triton may have been a planet that was captured by Neptune?

A) It orbits Neptune in the opposite direction of Neptune's rotation.

B) It is too large to have been formed in the jovian nebula that formed Neptune.

C) It has an atmosphere and a measurable greenhouse effect.

D) It undergoes seasonal changes.

E) It is colder than any other moon or planet.

 

45)  The polar caps on Mars are composed of

A) pure solid carbon dioxide.

B) pure water ice.

C) mostly solid carbon dioxide and some water ice.

D) mostly water ice and some solid carbon dioxide.

E) There are no polar caps on Mars.

 

46)  If you have a 100-watt light bulb, how much energy does it use each minute?

A) 6,000 joules

B) 6,000 watts

C) 600 joules

D) 600 watts

E) 100 joules

 

47)  If you heat a gas so that collisions are continually bumping electrons to higher energy levels, when the electrons fall back to lower energy levels the gas produces

A) thermal radiation.

B) an absorption line spectrum.

C) an emission line spectrum.

D) X rays.

E) radio waves.

 

48)  Which of the following describes impact cratering?

A) the excavation of bowl-shaped depressions by asteroids or comets striking a planet's surface

B) the eruption of molten rock from a planet's interior to its surface

C) the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses

D) the wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water, ice, and other phenomena of planetary weather

 

49)  What is differentiation in planetary geology?

A) the process by which gravity separates materials according to density

B) the process by which different types of minerals form a conglomerate rock

C) any process by which a planet's surface evolves differently from another planet's surface

D) any process by which one part of a planet's surface evolves differently from another part of the same planet's surface

E) any process by which a planet evolves differently from its moons

 

50)  You observe a distant galaxy. You find that a spectral line normally found in the visible part of the spectrum is shifted toward the infrared. What do you conclude?

A) The galaxy is moving away from you.

B) The galaxy is moving toward you.

C) The galaxy has very weak gravity.

D) The galaxy is made purely of hydrogen.

E) The composition of the galaxy is changing.


 

1)  Answer:  A

 

2)  Answer:  E

 

3)  Answer:  D

 

4)  Answer:  B

 

5)  Answer:  C

 

6)  Answer:  A

 

7)  Answer:  B

 

8)  Answer:  D

 

9)  Answer:  B

 

10)  Answer:  A

 

11)  Answer:  A

 

12)  Answer:  A

 

13)  Answer:  C

 

14)  Answer:  E

 

15)  Answer:  B

 

16)  Answer:  B

 

17)  Answer:  A

 

18)  Answer:  C

 

19)  Answer:  D

 

20)  Answer:  B

 

21)  Answer:  C

 

22)  Answer:  A

 

23)  Answer:  C

 

24)  Answer:  C

 

25)  Answer:  A

 

26)  Answer:  E

 

27)  Answer:  C

 

28)  Answer:  B

 

29)  Answer:  C

 

30)  Answer:  C

 

31)  Answer:  D

 

32)  Answer:  D

 

33)  Answer:  A

 

34)  Answer:  E

 

35)  Answer:  D

 

36)  Answer:  B

 

37)  Answer:  A

 

38)  Answer:  C

 

39)  Answer:  B

 

40)  Answer:  A

 

41)  Answer:  B

 

42)  Answer:  D

 

43)  Answer:  B

 

44)  Answer:  A

 

45)  Answer:  C

 

46)  Answer:  A

 

47)  Answer:  C

 

48)  Answer:  A

 

49)  Answer:  A

 

50)  Answer:  A