MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

1)  How did the Ptolemaic model explain the apparent retrograde motion of the planets?

 

A) It held that sometimes the planets moved backward along their circular orbits.

B) It placed the Sun at the center so that the planets' apparent retrograde motion was seen as the    Earth passed each one in its orbit.

C) It varied the motion of the celestial sphere so that it sometimes moved backward.

D) It held that the planets moved along small circles that moved on larger circles

     around the Sun.

E) It held that the planets moved along small circles that moved on larger circles around the

     Earth.

 

2)  What do the structures of Stonehenge, the Templo Mayor, the Sun Dagger, and

     the Big Horn Medicine Wheel all have in common?

 

A) They were all places used for religious sacrifice.

B) They were all built on the orders of ancient kings.

C) They all can be used as lunar calendars.

D) They were all used by ancient peoples for astronomical observations.

E) all of the above

 

3)  What effect or effects would be most significant if the Moon's orbital plane were exactly

     the same as the ecliptic plane?

 

A) Solar eclipses would be much rarer.

B) Solar eclipses would be much more frequent.

C) Solar eclipses would last much longer.

D) both A and C

E) both B and C

 

4)  Considering Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2, which of the following statements is true?

 

A) Mass can be turned into energy, but energy cannot be turned back into mass.

B) It takes a large amount of mass to produce a small amount of energy.

C) A small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy.

D) You can make mass into energy if you can accelerate the mass to the speed of light.

E) One kilogram of mass represents 1 joule of energy.

 

5)  What makes the North Star, Polaris, special?

 

A) It is the brightest star in the sky.

B) It is the star straight overhead.

C) It appears very near the north celestial pole.

D) It is the star directly on your northern horizon.

E) It can be used to determine your longitude on Earth.

 

6)  What do we mean when we say that the universe is expanding?

 

A) Average distances are increasing between star systems within galaxies.

B)  Everything in the universe is gradually growing in size.

C)  Average distances are increasing between galaxies.

D) The statement is not meant to be literal; rather, it means that our knowledge of the

      universe is growing.

E)  Individual galaxies are gradually growing in size.

 

7)  Which of the following statements does not use the term light year in an appropriate way?

 

A) It's about 4 light-years from here to Alpha Centauri.

B) It will take me light-years to complete this homework assignment.

C) A light-year is about 10 trillion kilometers.

D) It will take the Voyager spacecraft about 20,000 years to travel just 1 light-year.

E) The Milky Way Galaxy is about 100,000 light-years in diameter.

 

8)  Absolute zero is

 

A) 0e  Kelvin.

B) 0e  Celsius.

C) 0e Fahrenheit.

D) 32e  Fahrenheit.

E) 273e  Celsius.

 

9)  Kepler's second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal

     areas in equal times, means that

 

A) a planet travels faster when it is nearer to the Sun and slower when it is farther from the Sun.

B) a planet's period does not depend on the eccentricity of its orbit.

C) planets that are farther from the Sun move at slower average speeds than nearer planets.

D) the period of a planet does not depend on its mass.

E) planets have circular orbits.

 

10)  How much electrical charge does an atom with 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 5 electrons have?

 

A) a total charge of +17

B) a negative charge of \'2D5

C) a positive charge of +7

D) a positive charge of +1

E) none of the above

 

11)  He discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses.

 

A) Tycho Brahe

B) Copernicus

C) Kepler

D) Galileo

E) Ptolemy

 

 

12)  Which of the following scenarios correctly demonstrates the transformation of mass

        into energy as given by Einstein's equation, E = mc2?

 

A) When hydrogen is fused into helium, whether in the Sun or in a nuclear bomb, the

     mass difference is turned into energy.

B) An object accelerated to a great speed has a lot of kinetic energy.

C) A mass raised to a great height has a lot of gravitational potential energy.

D) When you boil a pot of water, it has a high heat content, or thermal energy.

E) A burning piece of wood produces light and heat, therefore giving off radiative and

     thermal energy.

 

13)  Where does the energy come from that your body uses to keep you alive?

 

A) It is produced from the radiative energy of the Sun on your skin.

B) It comes from the foods you eat.

C) It comes from the water you drink.

D) It is in the air that you breathe.

E) It is created during the time that you rest or sleep.

 

14)  When an atom loses an electron, it becomes

 

A) sublimated.

B) dissociated.

C) ionized.

D) an isotope.

E) a plasma.

 

15)  Gasoline is useful in cars because it has

 

A) gravitational potential energy.

B) chemical potential energy.

C) electrical potential energy.

D) kinetic energy.

E) radiative energy.

 

16)  Ptolemy was important in the history of astronomy because he

 

A) developed a model of the solar system that made sufficiently accurate predictions of

     planetary positions to remain in use for many centuries.

B) developed the first scientific model of the universe.

C) was the first to believe in an Earth-centered universe.

D) was the first to create a model of the solar system that placed the Sun rather than the

     Earth at the center.

E) was the first to believe that all orbits are perfect circles.

 

17)  From the fact that virtually every galaxy is moving away from us and more distant

       galaxies are moving away from us at a faster rate than closer ones, we conclude that

  

A) the Milky Way Galaxy is expanding.

B) we are located at the center of the universe.

C) the farthest galaxies will eventually be moving faster than the speed of light.

D) the universe is expanding.

E) the universe is shrinking.

 

18)  He developed a system for predicting planetary positions that remained in use for

       some 1,500 years.

 

A) Tycho Brahe

B) Copernicus

C) Kepler

D) Galileo

E) Ptolemy

 

19)  Which of the following statements about the celestial equator is true at all latitudes?

 

A) It lies along the band of light we call the Milky Way.

B) It represents an extension of the Earth's equator onto the celestial sphere.

C) It cuts the dome of your sky exactly in half.

D) It extends from your horizon due east, through your zenith, to your horizon due west.

E) It extends from your horizon due north, through your zenith, to your horizon due south.

 

20)  Which of the following is a form of electrical potential energy?

 

A) coal

B) energy coming to your house from power companies

C) energy from the Sun

D) light from a fluorescent bulb

E) moving blades on an electric mixer

 

21)  What is nuclear fusion?

 

A) an explosion caused by putting together two volatile chemicals

B) the process of splitting nuclei to produce energy

C) the process of turning matter into pure energy

D) the process of combining nuclei of one type to make a different element, during which energy

     is released

E) a process that only occurs in bombs

 

22)  Which of the following statements about scientific theories is not true?

 

A) A theory cannot be taken seriously by scientists if it contradicts other theories developed

     by scientists over the past several hundred years.

B) A theory is a model designed to explain a number of observed facts.

C) If even a single new fact is discovered that contradicts what we expect according to a

     particular theory, then the theory must be revised or discarded.

D) A theory must make predictions that can be checked by observation or experiment.

E) A theory can never be proved beyond all doubt; we can only hope to collect more and

     more evidence that might support it.

 

23)  He discovered what we now call Newton's first law of motion.

 

A) Tycho Brahe

B) Copernicus

C) Kepler

D) Galileo

E) Ptolemy

 

24)  Which of the following is not a unit of energy?

 

A) Calorie

B) joule

C) calorie

D) kilowatt

E) British thermal unit

 

25)  What is the saros cycle?

 

A) the roughly 6\'2Dmonth period between eclipse seasons

B) the 18-year cycle over which the pattern of eclipses repeats

C) the period between total solar eclipses

D) the period between a total solar eclipse and a total lunar eclipse

E) the period between eclipses

 

26)  Which of the following never goes in retrograde motion?

 

A) the Sun B)  Venus C)  Mars D)  Jupiter E)  Saturn

 

27)  Which of the following statements does not use the term angular size or angular distance

       correctly?

 

A) The angular size of the Moon is about 1/2 degree.

B) The angular distance between those two houses in the distance is 30e.

C) The angular distance between those two bright stars in the sky is about 2 meters.

D) The angular size of the Sun is about the same as that of the Moon.

E) You can use your outstretched hand to estimate angular sizes and angular distances.

 

28)  Which of the following is not a characteristic of the inner planets?

 

A) They are relatively smaller than the outer planets.

B) They all have solid, rocky surfaces.

C) Their orbits are relatively closely spaced.

D) They all have substantial atmospheres.

E) They have very few, if any, satellites.

 

29)  What is a meteorite?

 

A) a streak of light caused by a star moving across the sky

B) a streak of light caused by a small particle from space burning up in the Earth's atmosphere

C) a fragment of an asteroid from the solar system that has fallen to the Earth's surface

D) a small moon that orbits one of the giant planets

E) a comet that burns up in the Earth's atmosphere

 

30)  What is the name given to 2H?

 

A) hydrogen B)  helium C)  deuterium D)  tritium

 

31)  Which planet has a ring system?

 

A) Jupiter

B) Saturn

C) Uranus

D) Neptune

E) all of the above

 

32)  If you represented each star by a grain of sand, how much sand would it take to represent all

       the stars in the universe?

 

A) all the sand in a typical playground sandlot

B) all the sand on Miami Beach

C) all the sand on the beaches of California

D) all the sand on the beaches in the United States

E) more than all the sand on all the beaches on Earth

 

33)  What does temperature measure?

 

A) the average mass of particles in a substance

B) the average size of particles in a substance

C) the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance

D) the total number of particles in a substance

E) the total potential energy of particles in a substance

 

34)  About where is our solar system located within the Milky Way Galaxy?

 

A) at the center of the galaxy

B) about 10 percent of the way from the center of the galaxy to the outskirts of the galactic disk

C) about two-thirds of the way from the center of the galaxy to the outskirts of the galactic disk

D) near the far outskirts of the galactic disk

E) in the halo of the galaxy above the galactic disk

 

35)  How are galaxies important to our existence?

 

A) Without galaxies, there could not have been a Big Bang.

B) Without galaxies, the universe could not be expanding.

C) Galaxies prevent planets from leaving their orbits around stars; e.g., our galaxy

     prevents the Earth from leaving its orbit of the Sun.

D) Galaxies recycle heavy elements produced in stars into future generations of stars.

E) Galaxies provide the gravity that prevents us from falling off the Earth.

 

36)  Most of the mass in the Milky Way Galaxy is located

 

A) in the halo (above/below the disk).

B) within the disk.

C) in the stars in the spiral arms.

D) in the gas and dust.

E) in the central bulge of the galaxy.

 

37)  At extremely high temperatures (e.g., millions of degrees), which of the following

       best describes the phase of matter?

 

A) a gas of rapidly moving molecules

B) a plasma consisting of positively charged ions and free electrons

C) a gas consisting of individual, neutral atoms, but no molecules

D) a plasma consisting of rapidly moving, neutral atoms

E) none of the above (at these extremely high temperatures, matter cannot exist)

 

38)  Why is it summer in the Northern Hemisphere when it is winter in the Southern

       Hemisphere?

 

A) The Northern Hemisphere is closer to the Sun than the Southern Hemisphere.

B) The Northern Hemisphere is "on top" of the Earth and therefore receives more sunlight.

C) The Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun and receives more direct sunlight.

D) The Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun and receives more indirect sunlight.

E) It isn't: both hemispheres have the same seasons at the same time.

 

39)  One of the "nails in the coffin" for the Earth-centered universe was

 

A) the retrograde motion of the planets

B) the phases of the Moon

C) eclipses of the Sun

D) Galileo's observation of stars in the Milky Way

E) Galileo's observations of the moons of Jupiter

 

40)  Why do we see essentially the same face of the Moon at all times?

 

A) because the other face points toward us only at new moon, when we can't see the Moon

B) because the Moon does not rotate

C) because the Moon's rotational and orbital periods are equal

D) because the Sun only illuminates one half at a time

E) because the Moon has a nearly circular orbit around the Earth

 

41)  What conditions are required for a lunar eclipse?

 

A) The phase of the Moon must be new, and the nodes of the Moon's orbit must be

     nearly aligned with the Earth and the Sun.

B) The phase of the Moon must be full, and the nodes of the Moon's orbit must be nearly

     aligned with the Earth and the Sun.

C) The phase of the Moon can be new or full, and the nodes of the Moon's orbit must be

      nearly aligned with the Earth and the Sun.

D) The phase of the Moon must be new, and the Moon's orbital plane must lie in the ecliptic.

E) The phase of the Moon must be full, and the Moon's orbital plane must lie in the ecliptic.

 

42)  Which of the following statements about the Milky Way Galaxy is not true?

 

A) It contains between 100 billion and 1 trillion stars.

B) Our solar system is located very close to the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.

C) Our view of distant objects is obscured by gas and dust when we look into the galactic plane.

D) The galaxy is about 100,000 light-years in diameter.

E) One rotation of the galaxy takes about 200 million years.

 

43)  How many atoms fit across the period at the end of this sentence?

 

A) hundreds

B) thousands

C) millions

D) billions

E) more than you could count in a lifetime

 

44)  Consider an atom of gold in which the nucleus contains 79 protons and 118 neutrons.

       What is its atomic number and atomic weight?

 

A) The atomic number is 79, and the atomic weight is 197.

B) The atomic number is 79, and the atomic weight is 118.

C) The atomic number is 118, and the atomic weight is 197.

D) The atomic number is 118, and the atomic weight is 79.

 

45)  The names of the seven days of the week are based on the

 

A) seven naked-eye objects that appear to move among the constellations.

B) seven planets closest to the Sun.

C) seven brightest stars in the prominent constellation Orion.

D) most popular Norse gods.

E) seven largest constellations of the ancient world.

 

46)  What happens during the apparent retrograde motion of a planet?

 

A) The planet rises in the west and sets in the east.

B) The planet appears to move eastward with respect to the stars over a period of many nights.

C) The planet moves backward through the sky.

D) The planet moves backward in its orbit around the Sun.

E) The planet moves through constellations that are not part of the zodiac.

 

47)  Radiative energy is

 

A) heat energy.

B) energy from nuclear power plants.

C) energy carried by light.

D) energy used in home radiators.

E) energy of motion.

 

48)  Which of the following is largest?

 

A) size of a typical galaxy

B) size of Pluto's orbit

C) distance to the nearest star (other than our Sun)

D) 1 light\'2Dyear

 

49)  Which of the following statements about the ecliptic plane is not true?

 

A) It is the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun.

B) It is the plane of the Moon's orbit around the Earth.

C) During a solar eclipse, the Moon lies in the ecliptic plane.

D) During a lunar eclipse, the Moon lies in the ecliptic plane.

E) The nodes of the Moon's orbit lie in the ecliptic plane.

 

50)  In the formula E = mc2, what does E represent?

 

A) the kinetic energy of a moving object

B) the radiative energy carried by light

C) the gravitational potential energy of an object held above the ground

D) the mass\'2Denergy, or potential energy stored in an object's mass

E) the electric charge of the object


 

1)  Answer:  E

 

2)  Answer:  D

 

3)  Answer:  B

 

4)  Answer:  C

 

5)  Answer:  C

 

6)  Answer:  C

 

7)  Answer:  B

 

8)  Answer:  A

 

9)  Answer:  A

 

10)  Answer:  D

 

11)  Answer:  C

 

12)  Answer:  A

 

13)  Answer:  B

 

14)  Answer:  C

 

15)  Answer:  B

 

16)  Answer:  A

 

17)  Answer:  D

 

18)  Answer:  E

 

19)  Answer:  B

 

20)  Answer:  B

 

21)  Answer:  D

 

22)  Answer:  A

 

23)  Answer:  D

 

24)  Answer:  D

 

25)  Answer:  B

 

26)  Answer:  A

 

27)  Answer:  C

 

28)  Answer:  D

 

29)  Answer:  C

 

30)  Answer:  C

 

31)  Answer:  E

 

32)  Answer:  E

 

33)  Answer:  C

 

34)  Answer:  C

 

35)  Answer:  D

 

36)  Answer:  A

 

37)  Answer:  B

 

38)  Answer:  C

 

39)  Answer:  E

 

40)  Answer:  C

 

41)  Answer:  B

 

42)  Answer:  B

 

43)  Answer:  C

 

44)  Answer:  A

 

45)  Answer:  A

 

46)  Answer:  B

 

47)  Answer:  C

 

48)  Answer:  A

 

49)  Answer:  B

 

50)  Answer:  D