MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)  If you have a 100-watt light bulb, how much energy does it use each minute?

A) 6,000 joules

B) 6,000 watts

C) 600 joules

D) 600 watts

E) 100 joules

2)  Everything looks red through a red filter because

A) the filter emits red light and absorbs other colors.

B) the filter absorbs red light and emits other colors.

C) the filter transmits red light and absorbs other colors.

D) the filter reflects red light and transmits other colors.

3)  The wavelength of a wave is

A) how strong the wave is.

B) the distance between a peak of the wave and the next trough.

C) the distance between two adjacent peaks of the wave.

D) the distance between where the wave is emitted and where it is absorbed.

E) equal to the speed of the wave times the wave's frequency.

4)  From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

A) infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays, radio

B) radio, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays

C) visible light, infrared, X rays, ultraviolet, gamma rays, radio

D) gamma rays, X rays, visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radio

E) radio, X rays, visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma rays

5)  If you heat a gas so that collisions are continually bumping electrons to higher energy levels, when the electrons fall back to lower energy levels the gas produces

B) an absorption line spectrum.

C) an emission line spectrum.

D) X rays.

6)  When white light passes through a cool cloud of gas, we see

A) visible light.

B) infrared light.

D) an absorption line spectrum.

E) an emission line spectrum.

7)  The spectra of most galaxies show redshifts. This means that their spectral lines

A) always are in the red part of the visible spectrum.

B) have wavelengths that are longer than normal.

C) have wavelengths that are shorter than normal.

D) have a higher intensity in the red part of the spectrum.

E) have normal wavelengths, but absorption of light makes them appear red.

8)  If one object has a large redshift and another object has a small redshift, what can we conclude about these two objects?

A) The one with the large redshift is moving toward us faster than the one with the small redshift.

B) The one with the large redshift is moving away from us, and the one with the small redshift is moving toward us.

C) The one with the large redshift is moving away from us faster than the one with the small redshift.

D) The one with the large redshift is hotter and therefore is putting out more radiation.

9)  What is the purpose of adaptive optics?

A) to improve the angular resolution of telescopes in space

B) to eliminate the distorting effects of atmospheric turbulence for telescopes on the ground

C) to increase the collecting area of telescopes on the ground

D) to increase the magnification of telescopes on the ground

E) to allow several small telescopes to work together like a single larger telescope

10)  Which of the following is not an advantage of the Hubble Space Telescope over ground-based telescopes?

A) It is closer to the stars.

B) Stars do not twinkle when observed from space.

C) It can observe infrared and ultraviolet light, as well as visible light.

D) It never has to close because of bad weather.

E) Observers on the ground can use it at any time of day (i.e., not only during their night).

11)  How do asteroids differ from comets?

A) Asteroids are rocky bodies and are denser than the comets, which are made of icy material.

B) Asteroids are rocky bodies and are less dense than the comets, which are made of icy material.

C) Asteroids are made of icy material and are denser than the comets, which are more rocky.

D) Asteroids are made of icy material and are less dense than the comets, which are rockier.

E) Asteroids and comets are both made of rocky and icy material, but asteroids are smaller in size than comets.

12)  According to our theory of solar system formation, why do all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction and in nearly the same plane?

A) The original solar nebula happened to be disk-shaped by chance.

B) Any planets that once orbited in the opposite direction or a different plane were ejected from the solar system.

C) The laws of conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum ensure that any rotating, collapsing cloud will end up as a spinning disk.

D) The Sun formed first, and as it grew in size it spread into a disk, rather like the way a ball of dough can be flattened into a pizza by spinning it.

E) Luck explains it, as we would expect that most other solar systems would not have all their planets orbiting in such a pattern.

13)  We can rule out the idea that the Earth and Moon formed simultaneously in the solar nebula because

A) they have different rotation rates.

B) they have different densities.

C) they have different sizes.

D) they have different surfaces.

E) the Moon is made of metal and the Earth is made of rock.

14)  Most of the planets discovered around other stars

A) are more massive than Earth and orbit very far from the star.

B) are more massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star.

C) are less massive than Earth and orbit very far from the star.

D) are less massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star.

E) are found around neutron stars.

15)  Which of the following is not characteristic of the terrestrial planets?

A) smaller size and radius than jovian planets

B) more moons than jovian planets

C) higher density than jovian planets

D) solid surface

E) more closely spaced together than jovian planets

16)  Under what circumstances can differentiation occur in a planet?

A) The planet must have a rocky surface.

B) The planet must be made of both metal and rock.

C) The planet must have an atmosphere.

D) The planet must be geologically active, that is, have volcanoes, planetquakes, and erosion from weather.

E) The planet must have a molten interior.

17)  The terrestrial planet cores contain mostly metal because

A) the entire planets are made mostly of metal.

B) metals condensed first in the solar nebula and the rocks then accreted around them.

C) metals sank to the center during a time when the interiors were molten throughout.

D) radioactivity created metals in the core from the decay of uranium.

E) convection carried the metals to the core.

18)  Which of the following worlds have the thinnest lithospheres?

A) Earth and the Moon

B) Venus and the Moon

C) Mercury and Venus

D) Earth and Mars

E) Earth and Venus

19)  The lithosphere of a planet is the layer that consists of

A) material above the crust.

B) material between the crust and the mantle.

C) the rigid rocky material of the crust and uppermost portion of the mantle.

D) the softer rocky material of the mantle.

E) the lava that comes out of volcanoes.

20)  Which of the following describes impact cratering?

A) the excavation of bowl-shaped depressions by asteroids or comets striking a planet's surface

B) the eruption of molten rock from a planet's interior to its surface

C) the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses

D) the wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water, ice, and other phenomena of planetary weather

21)  Which of the terrestrial worlds has the strongest magnetic field?

A) Mars B)  Earth C)  the Moon D)  Venus E)  Mercury

22)  How have we been able to construct detailed maps of surface features on Venus?

A) by studying Venus from Earth with powerful telescopes

B) by studying Venus with powerful telescopes on spacecraft that were sent to orbit Venus

C) by making computer models of geological processes on Venus

D) by using radar from spacecraft that were sent to orbit Venus

E) by landing spacecraft on the surface for close-up study

23)  Valles Marineris is a(n)

A) large valley on the Moon.

B) extensive plain on Mars.

C) huge series of cliffs on Mercury.

D) large canyon on Mars.

E) large canyon on Venus.

24)  The atmospheric pressure on the surface of a planet depends primarily on

A) the surface temperature.

B) the weight of the atmosphere above the surface.

C) the surface gravity of the planet.

D) the fraction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

E) the amount of sunlight absorbed in the atmosphere.

25)  How does the greenhouse effect work?

A) Greenhouse gases transmit visible light, allowing it to heat the surface, but then absorb infrared light from the Earth, trapping the heat near the surface.

B) The higher pressure of the thick atmosphere at lower altitudes traps heat in more effectively.

C) Ozone transmits visible light, allowing it to heat the surface, but then absorbs most of the infrared heat, trapping the heat near the surface.

D) Greenhouse gases absorb X rays and ultraviolet light from the Sun, which then heat the atmosphere and the surface.

E) Greenhouse gases absorb infrared light from the Sun, which then heats the atmosphere and the surface.

26)  The belts and zones of Jupiter are

A) alternating bands of rising and falling air at different latitudes.

B) cyclonic and anticyclonic storms.

C) names for different cloud layers on Jupiter.

D) alternating regions of charged particles in Jupiter's magnetic field.

27)  What is the Io torus?

A) the atmosphere of Io that consists of gases expelled by the volcanically active moon

B) a donut-shaped belt around Jupiter that consists of ionized gases, expelled by the volcanically active moon Io, captured by Jupiter's magnetic field

C) a large, donut-shaped volcano on the surface of Io

D) a donut-shaped belt around Jupiter that consists of charged particles captured from the solar wind by Jupiter's magnetic field

E) a planned NASA mission to Io

28)  What mechanism is most responsible for generating the internal heat of Io that drives the volcanic activity?

A) accretion

C) differentiation

D) tidal heating

E) bombardment

29)  Why do astronomers believe Triton may have been a planet that was captured by Neptune?

A) It orbits Neptune in the opposite direction of Neptune's rotation.

B) It is too large to have been formed in the jovian nebula that formed Neptune.

C) It has an atmosphere and a measurable greenhouse effect.

D) It undergoes seasonal changes.

E) It is colder than any other moon or planet.

30)  Planetary rings are

A) nearer to their planet than any of the planet's large moons.

B) orbiting in the equatorial plane of their planet.

C) composed of a large number of individual particles that orbit their planet in accord with Kepler's third law.

D) known to exist for all of the jovian planets.

E) all of the above.