### Concepts for Exam IV

Topics from Exam One
Doppler Effect
Longitudinal and Transfer Waves
Human Hearing

Topics from Exam Two

Types of Spectra
Color Addition and Color Subtraction
Color and Temperature

Topics from Exam Three

Newton's 1st Law
Newton's 2nd Law
Newton's 3rd Law

Chapter 6 - Momentum

Momentum = mass times velocity
Impulse = force times time
Relationship of impulse and momentum: Impulse is equal to the change in momentum for an object.
Conservation of Momentum: If there is no impulse, then the momentum of an object will not change.
Elastic Collision: A collision in which colliding objects rebound. The total kinetic energy does not change.
Inelastic Collision: A collision in which colliding objects are deformed. Some of the kinetic energy is converted to heat energy.
Review the figures in your text involving impulse, momentum, recoil and collisions.

Chapter 7 - Energy

Work = force applied times distance traveled
Potential Energy = mass times g times height
Kinetic Energy = 1/2 times mass times velocity2
Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form of energy into another.
Review the relationship between work and kinetic energy.

Chapter 8 - Rotational Motion

Rotational Inertia: The property of an object to resist any change in its state of rotation.
Torque = force times lever-arm distance
Center of Mass: The average position of mass of an object.
Centripetal Force: a "center-seeking" force that keeps an object in a circular path
Centrifugal Force: an outward force due to rotation.
Angular Momentum = rotational inertia times rotational velocity
Conservation of Angular Momentum: If there is no external torque, then the angular momentum of an object will not change.
Review how the location of the center of mass effects that stability of an object. Also review the figures in your text involving conservation of angular momentum.

Chapter 9 - Gravity

Law of Universal Gravitation: The gravitational force between to objects is where G is a constant, m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and d is the distance between their centers.
Weightlessness: A conditions wherein gravitational pull appears to be lacking.
Review the types of tides and what causes them.

Review Lab Exercises

Reminder: The second and final exam will contain questions pertaining to the lab. Look over the review for the lab exam.

How to Study

1. Review homework questions.
2. Review the Summary of Terms section at the end of each chapter.
2. Review the questions throughout the chapters.
3. Study each picture in the chapters and read their captions.
4. Reread the chapters.