Welcome to the Thin Films and Microscopy Lab

 

mailto:rfriedfeld@sfasu.edu

 

 

Our Laboratory is the result of a collaborative effort between the Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Department of Biology . 

 

          This laboratory is equipped with a Digital Instruments Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) (Nanoscope II System). These instruments are being used for the study of solid-state materials such as semiconductors, metals and semimetals and biological molecules such as genomic DNA. The laboratory is also outfitted with a  JEOL-JSM-6100 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that provides the ability to directly image the microstructure of solid state and biological samples down to approx. 100nm. The laboratory possesses the necessary ancillary equipment for SEM of biological samples such as a critical point drying apparatus and sputter coater. In addition, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating disc electrode, an electrochemical analyzer, and a metallurgical polisher (Buhler Ecomet IV), all of which are used for growing semiconductor thin films.

Some of the current areas of research include the fabrication of thin films by electrochemical deposition under potentiostatic or galvanostatic control. In particular, we are studying the growth and characterization of multilayered thin films for use in solar cell technology. Additional projects include the study of genomic DNA molecules by STM and AFM on various substrates. Undergraduate projects include the development of a Scanning Probe Microscope system for use in microgravity materials research.

 

About the AFM and STM

 

Binnig, Quate and Gerber invented the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), or Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) in 1986. It is the daughter instrument of the earlier Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), which was invented by Binnig and Rohrer at IBM Research (Zurich) in the early 1980s.

The STM can image individual lattice sites on the surfaces of conductive or semiconductive crystalline materials. It has made significant contributions to the semiconductor industry and materials science in general. For example, the STM gave the first direct evidence of the 7x7 reconstruction of the silicon <111> surface. Shortly after the invention of the STM, Binnig, Quate and Gerber introduced the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in 1986. The AFM can image insulating and conducting surfaces, often with the same resolution as the STM. As a result the AFM has found application in many fields of surface science, nanotechnology, polymer science, semiconductor materials processing, microbiology and cellular biology. 

 

Our Laboratory is the result of a collaborative effort between the Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Department of Biology .  The Lab is outfitted with a Digital Instruments AFM that is being used in various areas of research.

 

 

Current Areas of Research

 

Thin Films

 

 

Welcome to the Thin Films and Microscopy Laboratory

 Thin Film Deposition Area:  Shown is the Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) used to deposit CuInSe2 and CuInS2 thin films.

Scanning Electron Microscope

Jeol 6100

SEM Image of cross-section of electrodeposited CuInSe2 thin film.

Atomic Force Microscope & Scanning Tunneling Microscope

(Digital Instruments Nanoscope II)

AFM Image of electrodeposited CuInS2 thin film

AFM Image of electrodeposited CuInS2 thin film (surface plot)

Sputter Coater used to coat samples and substrates with a conductive coating.

 

               

 

 Carbon Nanotubes

(AFM Images of Carbon Nanotubes on Graphite Substrate)

 

 

Cellulose Fibers

(AFM Images of Cellulose Fibers on Mica Substrate)

 

Cellulose

 

 

Other sample images from the AFM lab can be found here:  Images

 

A number of companies make Scanning Probe Microscopes commercially, although it is also possible to build one yourself. You may visit these sites to find out more about scanning probe microscopes:

 

University sites:

 

The Lindsay Lab at ASU

 

Commercial sites:

 

Digital Instruments-Atomic Force & Scanning Probe Microscopy

Jeol Scanning Probe Microscopes

Quesant

 

Other Links:

kc135 project

 

 

 

Publications and Presentations

 

 

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Electrodeposited CuInSe2 Nanoscale Mulilayers," R.P. Raffaelle, J.G. Mantovani, and R. Friedfeld, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 46, 201 (1997).

 

Electrodeposition of CuInxGa1-xSe2 Thin Films," R. Friedfeld, R.P. Raffaelle, and J.G. Mantovani, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 58, 375 (1999).

 

Electrodeposited CIS-based Solar Cell Materials", R. Raffaelle, T. Potdevin, J. Mantovani,

R. Friedfeld, S. Bailey, Materials in Space, pp. 123-128, (1999).

 

"A Two-Step Electrochemical Deposition Process for the Fabrication of CIGS Thin Films",

R. Friedfeld, J. Mantovani, R. Raffaelle, A. Hepp, S. Bailey, Materials in Space, pp. (1999).

 

Electrodeposited CdS on CIS pn Junctions", R. Raffaelle, H. Forsell, T. Potdevin, R. Friedfeld,

J. Mantovani, S. Bailey, S. Hubbard, E. Gordon, and A. Hepp, "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells", 57, pp. 167-178, (1999).

 

Electrodeposited CIS-based Solar Cell Materials", R. Raffaelle, T. Potdevin, J. Mantovani,

R. Friedfeld, S. Bailey, Materials in Space, pp. 123-128, (1999).

Electrodeposited CIS-Based Solar Cell Materials. R. P. Raffaelle, T. Potdevin, J. G. Mantovani, R. Friedfeld, J. Gorse, M. Breen, S. G. Bailey, and A. F. Hepp in Materials in Space - Science, Technology, and Exploration. A. F. Hepp, J. M. Prahl, T. G. Keith, S. G. Bailey, and J. R. Fowler, Editors; Symposium Proceedings Volume 551, Materials Research Society: Pittsburgh, pp. 123-128 (1999).

Annealing Effects on the Self - Assembly of Synthesized Organic Molecules on Au (111) Substrates, Robert Friedfeld, Neil Mulchan, Rolando Branly, Oladipo Ogunjimi, Steve Scurlock, Herbey Solis, Physical Society, Annual APS March Meeting 2003, March 3-7, 2003, , abstract #B24.009 03  (2003)

 

Modeling of CuInSe2 and CuInGaSe2 Superlattices, Scurlock, Steven; Friedfeld, Robert

Stephen F. Austin State University, American Physical Society, Annual APS March Meeting

2003, March 3-7, (2003).

 

Possible Applications and Limitations of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Solar Energy Conversion, Robert Friedfeld, Joint Spring Meeting of the Texas Sections of the APS, AAPT, and Zone 13 SPS March 3–5, 2005; Nacogdoches, TX ( 2003).

“Atomic force microscopy in zero-g”, Friedfeld, R. Parker, S. Rodgers, G. Meador, R. Williams, R.   Johnson, M., Branly, R., Dept. of Phys. & Astronomy,  Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX, USA, IEEE Aerospace Conference 2003 Proceedings. Page(s): 1- 89 vol.1 ISSN: 1095-323X March 8-15, (2003).

“Atomic Force Microscopy of Carbon Nanotubes”, Bright Ideas Conference, Stephen F. Austin State University, (2006)

“Carbon Nanotubes: Production, Purification, and Characterization”,  Jonathan Belew, Matt Pusko, Carson Fuls, Robert Friedfeld,  Texas Physics Spring 2006 Meeting (2006)